Sculpture, as a unique art form with the functions of art appreciation and education as its primary role, shoulders the important responsibility of conveying the cultural connotation of the city and promoting the humanistic spirit of the city in urban construction. Sex is something that no other art form can replace. In this paper, D&Z sculpture manufacturers focus on exploring and thinking about the aesthetic characteristics of urban sculpture from the perspective of the aesthetic characteristics of sculpture and the symbiosis and integration of urban construction.
As a place where people live, the city has developed into the center of human technology, culture, economy and life today, and it is the focus of the world’s attention. Lewis Mumford said in the book “The History of Urban Development” that the main function of a city is to transform power into form, function into culture, old things into lively artistic images, and biological reproduction into social innovation, And “storing culture, spreading culture and innovating culture, these are about the three basic missions of the city”. From this, it is not difficult to discover the importance of culture to a city. The embodiment of culture is not only in the planning and architectural features of the city, but also inseparably and closely related to the city’s cultural mission. Many people say that sculpture plays an important role in the planning and design of the city and is the “eye” of the city. Through this window to the soul, we can touch the cultural heritage and growth history of the city. Therefore, sculpture is an indispensable and important element in the construction and planning of a city.
1. Sculptures in urban construction
(1) The connotation of urban sculpture
Urban sculpture, as can be seen from its literal meaning, must have a relationship with the city, and there are certain restrictions on the location and function of the sculpture design. To put it simply, it is an external, three-dimensional plastic art that exists in urban space and can be viewed by people. middle. Although the development of urban sculpture has a long history, it even has a long history of thousands of years in the West, and it has achieved brilliant achievements. However, the word “urban sculpture” was really put forward in my country in the early 1980s, and then it developed rapidly with the rise of urban construction, and it has only been more than 30 years. As an art, sculpture can not only embellish the urban space and beautify the environment, but also meet people’s spiritual needs and enrich cultural life. It can also improve the cultural taste of the city under the dual guidance of culture and aesthetics.
(2) Classification of urban sculptures
Urban sculptures vary according to their classification basis. For example, they can be divided into monumental sculptures, iconic sculptures, ornamental sculptures and other categories in terms of function; in terms of themes, there are thematic and non-thematic points; in terms of form There are figurative sculptures and abstract sculptures. The sculpture itself is divided into outdoor sculpture and indoor sculpture according to the architectural environment in which it is located. Outdoor sculpture is also called outdoor sculpture, and indoor sculpture generally refers to the sculpture on the shelf. Urban sculpture can be classified as a type of outdoor sculpture. With the changes of the times, the development of urban sculpture is affected by factors such as social history, political economy, and culture.
2. Aesthetic Reflection in Urban Sculpture Design
The concept of “Urban Sculpture Aesthetics” originally originated from the topic “The Outline of Urban Sculpture Aesthetics” made by Mr. Chen Yungang in 2005. In the article, he put forward the idea of constructing “urban sculpture aesthetics”, and then summarized the content of urban sculpture aesthetics, and hoped that urban sculpture aesthetics can be valued by people from all walks of life, such as art circles, sculpture circles, urban planning and architecture, and people all over the world. and research.
1) The Humanistic Spiritual Beauty of Urban Sculpture
Urban sculpture with cultural and symbolic features is the most visual carrier that reflects urban culture and spiritual temperament. Compared with the two elements of urban architecture and environment, the purely cultural features embodied by the combination of science and technology and artistry in sculpture will be more attractive and unique. Turning over the pages of history, there are many domestic and foreign urban sculptures with urban symbolic significance and recognized worldwide, such as the well-known American Statue of Liberty, which integrates functionality and artistry. People have never seen a city. You can see his sculpture. The huge statue is no longer just a work of art, it symbolizes the spirit of American freedom and democracy. Such foreign sculptures include the peeing boy Xiaolian in Belgium, the motherland of the Soviet Union, and the mermaid in Denmark. In China, there are the Monument to the People’s Heroes in Beijing, the Oriental Pearl in Shanghai, the Yellow River Mother in Lanzhou, the May Wind in Qingdao, and Jinan. The springs of Xi’an, the Silk Road group sculptures in Xi’an, etc. No matter how colorful and varied the colors, materials, forms and styles of urban sculptures are, they all reflect the current trend of fashion and humanistic spirit. A high-quality artwork often reflects its extraordinary value and significance because it contains a deeper understanding of cultural connotations. As the sculptures of the city, they contain the spiritual features and humanistic characteristics of the cities. Excellent urban sculpture works must reflect the history and culture of a city, the future development direction of the city, the ideological feelings that people yearn for, and the aesthetic taste that is generally acceptable to the public. This is also required for the deeper connotation of the beauty of the humanistic spirit of urban sculpture.
(2) Harmony and beauty of urban sculpture
The design and construction of urban sculpture must be inseparable from its existing space environment. Vitruvius has comprehensively established the basic principles of urban planning and architectural design, as well as the design principles of various types of buildings, in the Ten Books of Architecture. He advocated that “all buildings should be properly considered durable, convenient and practical, beautiful and pleasing to the eye”. The overall pattern planning of a city’s architectural environment and whether the spatial form of buildings and buildings is aesthetically pleasing are the most basic prerequisites for the development of urban sculpture. And something without moderation is never really pleasing to the eye. Therefore, the method for sculpture and architecture to jointly create space aesthetics needs to be considered by designers and builders. The spatial composition form that takes into account practicality, economy and aesthetics is the goal and direction of space aesthetics that architecture and sculpture need to build together. The biggest difference between urban sculpture and shelf sculpture. Whether the sculpture on the shelf is displayed indoors or outdoors, it only needs a three-dimensional exhibition space, and the audience appreciates the pure artistry brought by the sculpture itself. The urban sculpture needs to be placed in a specific environmental space, which itself has a certain connection with the environment, so the design should fully consider the integration with the surrounding environment. The architectural style where the sculpture is located, the size of the space, the height of the plants and the visual effects of the four seasons growth cycle will all have an impact on the sculpture design in the space. For example, in a relatively friendly space environment, the theme and form of the sculpture can choose interactive participation and other forms that are conducive to the audience’s intimate contact with the sculpture art; in a slightly larger space and the surrounding environment is relatively empty, the volume of the sculpture It can be slightly larger to enhance the openness of its scene. The functionality of urban sculpture determines its symbiosis with the environment. Therefore, the harmonious beauty of urban sculpture must complement the beauty of urban planning, architectural design and the beauty of the public environment in which it is located.
(3) The material and technical beauty of urban sculpture
The cultural spiritual value and artistic value pursued by urban sculpture are eternal. If the artwork itself is to be eternal, the durability of the material must be considered first. From ancient times to the present, the real material is the first choice for urban sculpture when selecting materials. There are various types of real materials. Among them, the stone materials have been used since the most primitive human beings used stones for carving for the first time to the more and more developed science and technology, which shows the durability of stone materials. Of course, iron, steel, copper, etc., which are used more, also belong to the category of durable materials. It is precisely because of its durability that these materials are widely used in construction, furniture and other aspects of people’s lives. In the long-term use process, people have a certain aesthetic sense of visual and tactile beauty to these materials. In fact, throughout the ages, the beauty of materials in sculptures at any time has always been an important part of “artistic beauty”. Each material has its own characteristics, and the visual effects and aesthetics produced by the material are also different due to the difference in sculpture form and thematic content. The granite in the stone material is hard in texture. The biggest advantage is that it has rich and durable colors and a strong sense of vision. When used as a sculpture material, a marble material with a relatively uniform color and fine crystallization is generally selected, which is clean and smooth, and feels like jade. Metal materials are very common materials in the construction of contemporary urban sculptures. Traditionally, metal materials used in urban sculptures are cast copper and cast iron materials. The cast copper material will give people a sense of heaviness and historical vicissitudes, and its technology is also very delicate. In the sculpture creation method, the rich and delicate texture beauty of the works can be vividly displayed, and it will bring people visual effects according to the different selection effects. Different color beauty. As a new type of material widely used all over the world with the development of industrial technology, stainless steel has a great advantage in the field of imagery and abstract urban sculpture construction. Its material does not change color, does not rust, has strong durability, simple shape and convenient processing, which is in harmony with the contemporary architectural environment and the fast-paced life and aesthetic orientation of modern people. The stainless steel sculpture stands in the urban space, which can well reflect the relatively open artistic pursuit of modern people. The color stainless steel sculpture is to achieve the color effect by spraying the surface, breaking the singleness of the stainless steel sculpture, bringing a fashionable and active visual beauty to the urban environment, and becoming a beautiful landscape in the city. The beauty brought by sculpture through material expression is an essential aesthetic connotation factor for urban sculpture.
In addition to some common materials, there are also comprehensive materials, new materials, and new technologies with a wide range of choices. They are mainly used in the construction of current urban sculptures using more advanced science and technology to create some that can reflect the progress of the times. Development of industrial level works. In the reality that science and technology are gradually infiltrating the field of art, the relationship between art and technology has also become a hot topic for people, especially artists. Some people think that art should be pure, it is the concentrated expression of ideas and concepts, and it should try not to be affected by the current high-tech technology. This view is obviously a little one-sided. First of all, the creation of urban sculpture is closely following the development and changes of the era at any time. The fashion elements and aesthetic culture that are popular among people will become part of the sculpture creation. The development of technology will definitely bring new art. Manifestations. Secondly, technology is not only a means for people to achieve artistic goals. The presentation of the rich and diverse modeling features of sculpture is achieved through the selection of different technologies. Without technology as the basis for art, it is difficult for the creators to fully understand the ideas and concepts. disseminate and express. Therefore, a complete art should be a common combination of artistic ideas, technical means and material carriers. Today’s media for urban sculpture has become complex and diverse, and at the same time full of restlessness. How to find a good balance between technology and art, so that urban sculpture can exude its unique beauty of technical materials, maintain creativity, and show new vitality, is a major problem that urban sculpture needs to face up to at present.
(4) The beauty of lighting in urban sculptures
The pace of the advancement of the times subtly leads people’s aesthetic trends and creations in all walks of life. Urban sculpture is no exception. The characteristics of fashion trends are more or less integrated into sculpture creation by artists, such as popular colors, technological content, Novelty, etc. Lighting design is also one of them. Although the lighting of sculpture design is currently in its infancy and immature, it is believed that under the good opportunity of continuous improvement of urban lighting design, it will surely receive more attention. The beauty of the combination of technology and art brought about by the changing lighting of the sculpture is also part of the aesthetic connotation of urban sculpture. Sculpture lighting design is a secondary creation of sculpture to a certain extent. Sculpture works in urban space can not only better present the characteristics of sculpture to viewers at night through reasonable and optimal lighting. , can also produce or hazy, or clear, or elegant, or other artistic special effects. The emotional connotation, formal details and texture of sculpture works can also be better interpreted and reflected through lighting. The pace of modern urban life is accelerating, many office workers are busy with work during the day, and rarely have leisure time to calm down and appreciate the sculptures in the urban environment space. Therefore, the lighting and artistic effect display of sculptures existing in urban public spaces is particularly important. Because the environment and background of the sculpture works are different, some sculpture spaces need to create a quiet and soft atmosphere, some need a cheerful and unrestrained light and shadow effect, and some need a sad and desolate atmosphere. The way of lighting will have a direct impact on the sculpture. The viewing angle of the sculpture can be divided into 360° viewing angle and 180° viewing angle. The 360° viewing angle of the sculpture lighting method will be relatively flexible, and the effect will be more abundant. Therefore, when the sculpture is re-created, how to transmit the characteristics of the sculpture to the observer at night through lighting, how to better interpret the connotation and emotion of the sculpture, and how to display its form, details, texture, etc., so as to make the urban sculpture Under the combination of lighting technology and art, it shows cultural charm. It is not only the leader of sculpture lighting design and creation, but also an issue that needs to be continuously explored by professionals.
The future development of urban sculpture will have a broader space with the development of society and people’s continuous needs. How to create a harmonious and ideal urban sculpture and maximize its function and aesthetics in the process of development. Reflection is our constant pursuit of goals. It is necessary to allow people to have artistic observation points when they travel between the fast-paced life and high-rise buildings in modern cities, quietly appreciate the different beauty in the city, and experience the beauty of the culture at the same time as the psychological experience. charm.